Monday, March 30, 2009

Talipariti glabrum

Talipariti glabrum | Mountain Hao, Mountain Haw Tree, テリハハマボウ (Terihahamabo)

Hibiscus glaber is a synonym of Talipariti glabrum. Found in the Okinawa island group, Talipariti glabrum is a branching shrub up 3m tall (10 ft). It is similar to Talipariti tiliaceum (Hibiscus tiliaceus) or Sea Hibiscus, differing mainly in leaf and petal formation. It is also closely related to Talipariti hamabo (Hibiscus hamabo). The heart-shaped leaves of T. glabrum are a medium green in contrast to the 7-8cm bright yellow flowers. Flowers have a purple/red basal spot and deepen to orange as they age. Like Talipariti tiliaceum, this plant does well in coastal locations exposed to salty air and winds. It prefers full sun and rich, well-drained soil, and makes a good specimen bush or a hedge. Blooms in the summer and fall. Propagation is typically through hardwood cuttings in late spring. There is reputedly a variation of T. glabrum with larger, deep purplish brown foliage, although this may be the result of confusion with a variety of Talipariti tilliaceus.

Reference: Two woody Hibiscus species co-occur in the Bonin Islands of the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Hibiscus glaber Matsum. is endemic to the islands, and its putative ancestral species, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. To infer isolating mechanisms that led to speciation of H. glaber and the processes that resulted in co-occurrence of the two closely related species on the Bonin Islands, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. Materials collected from a wide area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans were used, and two closely related species, Hibiscus hamabo Siebold Zucc. and Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb., were also included in the analyses. The constructed tree suggested that H. glaber has been derived from H. tiliaceus, and that most of the modern Bonin populations of H. tiliaceus did not share most recent ancestry with H. glaber. Geographic isolation appears to be the most important mechanism in the speciation of H. glaber. The co-occurrence of the two species can be attributed to multiple migrations of different lineages into the islands. While a wide and overlapping geographical distribution of haplotypes was found in H. tiliaceus, localized geographical distribution of haplotypes was detected in H. glaber. It is hypothesized that a shift to inland habitats may have affected the mode of seed dispersal from ocean currents to gravity and hence resulted in geographical structuring of H. glaber haplotypes.

   Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, Koji Takayama
   Molecular Ecology, Volume 14 Issue 4, June 2004